Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 64, No 1 (1999)

The Dynamic of Growth of Almond Fruit cv. Ferragnes, Accumulation of Dry Matter, Sugars and Fat


Pages: 5-20


In the ecological conditions of Ravni Kotari, the two years research was carried out into the growth of almonds, the accumulation of dry substances in the almond fruit, as well as the accumulation of sugar and fat in the almond kernel. There are three phases in the growth curve: the phase of intensified growth (completed in 45-50 days) when the al- mond reaches up to 90% of its size and weight, then follows the phase of stagnation (60-65 days) and the phase of slow growth, which finishes about 75 days after blos- soming, when the fruit reaches its full size and weight. The accumulation of dry substance first occurs in the egzocarp-mezocarp, so that following this, would develop more intensively in the kernel 57 days after the fruit germination up until then, there was 90% moisture in the kernel. The level of carbohydrate in the kernel is the highest in the intensive growth phase, following a gradual diminishing, especially with the onset of the intensive biosynthesis of fat. In this period we can find only traces of directly produced sugars. Saccharose makes up 90-96% of the melting fraction of sugar. Among polysaccharides a presence of starch was noted. The level of lipids at the time of harvesting is between 43-49% of the dry substance. In the dynamic of lipid accumulation there are four phases: from the set of the fruit June (there is about 8% of dry substance), June when the lipid level remains unchanged, July when the lipid level reaches 14-18% of the dry substance and August when the level of July triples. In the first phases of the accumulation there is a considerable amount of saturated fatty acid (palmitic) and essential fatty acids (linoleic) and less oleic, than in the first fall and the oleic increases thanks primarily linol acid. The level of essential fatty acids falls from June to September.


almond; fruit growth; dry substance; sugars; fat

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